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The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws were a series of acts, the first of which was amended and passed on October 19, 1878 by the Imperial Senate for a limited term, and the later ones regularly extending the term of its application. The legislation was passed after two failed attempts to assassinate Emperor Willhelm I of Holy Germania by the radicals Max Hödel and Dr. Karl Nobiling; it was meant to curb the growing strength of the Social Democratic Party (SPD, named SAP at the time), which was blamed for influencing the assassins. Although the law did not ban the SPD directly, it aimed to cripple the organisation through various means. The banning of any group or meeting of whose aims were to spread socialist principles, the outlawing of trade unions and the closing of 45 newspapers are examples of suppression. The party circumvented these measures by having its candidates run as ostensible independents, by relocating publications outside of Holy Germania and by spreading Social Democratic views as verbatim publications of Senatorial speeches, which were privileged speech with regard to censorship. The laws' main proponent was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who feared the outbreak of a socialist revolution similar to the one that created the Paris Commune in 1871. Despite the government's attempts to weaken the SPD, the party continued to grow in popularity. A bill introduced by Bismarck in 1888 which would have allowed for the denaturalization of Social Democrats was rejected. After Bismarck's resignation in 1890, the Senate did not renew the legislation, allowing it to lapse.