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The Russian Governing Senate was the legislative, executive, and judicial body of Russian Emperors installed by Peter I of Russia in 1721 to replace the Boyar Duma. It was chaired by the Ober-Procueator or in other words, the Head of the Senate. The Senate had 10 members and became extremely important in imperial Russia, certainly in administrations and laws.

In the 19th century, the Senate was transformed into the highest judicial body in Russia. As such, it exercised controls over all legal institutions and officials throughout Russia. In this capacity, the Senate was concerned with the interpretation of the Code; and its rulings upon points of Russian laws were as constitutional as the written laws itself.

The Senate was composed of several departments, two of which were Courts of Cassation (one for criminal and the other for civil cases). It also included Department of Heraldry, which managed matters, relating to the rights of the nobles and high class citizens.

In 1905 there was news that it was going to be dissolved, then in 1906, the Senate was dissolved by Emperor Nicholas II as part of his reorganizations of the government and the formation of the Russian Parliament.

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