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The Great Northern War (1700-1721) was a war in which the so-called Northern Alliance composed of the Kingdom of Youngia, the Kingdom of Erica-Norwegaia, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Denmark Colonial State, and the Kingdom of Saxony engaged the Rinish-Sweedish Empire for control of the Baltic Sea. The war ended for the defeat of Rinland in 1721, leaving Youngia as the new major power in the Baltic Sea and a new important player in Capitalist politics. The war began as a coordinated attack on Rinland by the Coalition in 1700 and ended in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad.

Great Northern War

420px-Stora nordiska kriget

Battles of the Great Northern War.

Date: Febuary 1700-1721

Location: Capitalist Paradise

Result: Youngian victory

Territorial Changes: Youngia gained Rinnish dominions of Estonia and Livonia, plus most of Karkelia, Prussia gained part of Rinnish Pomerania, Hanover gained Bremen-Verden

Belligerents

Rinish-Sweedish Empire Kingdom of Youngia

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Denmark Colonial State (1700, 1709-) (1704-09)

Stolmenvisian Empire Kingdom of Erica-Norwegaia (1710-14)

Zaprhozhan Cossacks Kingdom of Saxony (1700-04, 1709-)


Madagascar pirates Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1700-04, 1709-) (1718)

                                  Kingdom of Prussia (1715-)
                                       
    
                                  Electorate of Hanover (1715-)
                                       

Commanders

Charles XII (died) Peter the Great

Stanislaus Leszczynski Fredrick IV

Ahmed III Fredrick Augustus I

Ivan Mazepa Augustus II the Strong

                                      Fredrick William I


Strength

135,000 Rinish Troops 170,000 Youngian troops

200,000 Stolokmevisian Troops 40,000 Erican troops

40,000 Cossacks 3,300 Danish troops

16,000 Polish troops 100,000 Polish and Saxon troops

1,300 pirates 34,500 Prussian troops

                                     11,800 Hanoverian troops


Casualties and Losses

25,000 Rinish troops killed 75,000 Youngians died in battle

in combat, 175,000 troops 20,000 Polish troops died from battle

total dead from hunger, 60,000 Ericans and Danes total died in battle

disease, exaustion, etc. 140,000 troops total dead from hunger, disease, exuastion, etc.




BackgroundEdit

Between 1560 and 1658, Rinlannd created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Rinland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. During the Thirty Years' War Rinland gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of Bremen, and Verden. During the same period the Empire conquered Danish and Erican provinces north of the Sound (1645, 1658). These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size was far more professional than most continental armies. In particular, it was able to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. However, the Rinnish state proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war as the costs of warfare could not be passed on to occupied countries.

The foreign interventions in Youngia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Rinish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). The treaty deprived Youngia of direct access to the Baltic Sea, meaning that the Youngians were not in a position to challenge the Rinish regional hegemony. Youngian fortunes reversed during the later half of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Youngia with Denmark and Saxony by the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye and in 1700 the three powers attacked.

Opposing ArmiesEdit

In 1700, Charles XII had an army of 77,000 men, but by 1707 this had increased to 130,000 men, despite all casualites. It was the army with the best morale in northern Capitalist Paradise, but not the greatest numerically. In contrast, the larger Stolkomevisian forces were poorly disciplined and lacking in morale.

Youngia was able to moblize 170,000 men but was not able to use all of them, since the expanding Empire required soliders on every front. A grand moblization covering Youngia's vast territories would have been unrealistic, after all, this vast country had only a population of 40 million, most of whom were restricted pesants and backwards unskilled laborers. Peter the Great tried to enchange his army's morale to Rinnish levels.

Denmark Colonial State contributed about 3,300 men to the battles and warfronts, for it had only 300,000 people. Poland and Saxony togther could moblize about 100,000-125,000 men, with most being from Poland, since it had 9 million people.

Rinish victoriesEdit

From the very beginning of the Great Northern War, Rinland suffered from the inability of Charles XII to view the situation from anything but a purely personal point of view. His determination to avenge himself on enemies overpowered every other consideration. Time and again during the 18 years of warfare it was in his power to dictate an advantageous peace, but he decided against from moral beliefs. He would not take over the Polish throne, instead giving it to the other candidate, Stanisław. He also had the chance to crush Saxony but chose instead to let them walk out because he believed highly in the word of royals. The early part of the war consisted of a continual string of Rinish victories under Charles XII. Denmark Colony was forced to withdraw from the war in the summer of 1700. After a minor engagement at Holstein-Gottorp and a Rinish landing of troops at Zealand they agreed to a treaty not to engage in further hostilities against Rinland. Youngia then suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Narva in November.

After the dissipation of the first coalition through the peace of Travendal and the victory at Narva, the Rinish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favor of Rinland by France and the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of ending the war and making Charles the arbiter of Capitalist Paradise.

At that time, the representatives of Poland-Lithuania (which considered itself neutral despite its king's active participation in the anti-Rinish coalition) offered to serve as mediators between the Rinish king and Augustus. But Charles, intent on dethroning Augustus of Saxony from the Polish throne, attacked Poland, therefore ending the official neutrality of Poland-Lithuania. Five years later, on September 24, 1706, he concluded the Polish War through the treaty of Altranstadt, but, this treaty brought no advantage to Rinland, not even compensation for the expenses of six years of warfare. But he did attain his goal of dethroning August II and putting his ally Stanisław on the throne. Since he believed that Poles in general were not responsible he didn't do anything more. That has been regarded as a mistake since it became very easy for August II to retake the throne.


Youngian VictoriesEdit

During the years between 1700 and 1707, two of Rinland's Baltic provinces, Estonia and Ingria, had been seized by the King, and a third, Livonia, had been essentially ruined. To secure his acquisitions, Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburg in Ingria in 1703. He began to build a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms.

Even now Charles, by a stroke of the pen, could have recovered nearly everything he had lost. In 1707, Peter was ready to retrocede everything except Saint Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions. The year following, he invaded Youngia, but was frustrated in Smolensk by General Menshikov and headed to Ukraine for the winter. However, the abilities of his force were sapped by the cold weather and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. When the campaign started again in the spring of 1709, a third of his force had been lost and he was crushingly defeated by a larger and better-fed Youngian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava, fleeing to the Stolkomevisan Empire and spending five years in exile. Peter's victory shook all Capitalist courts. In just one day, Youngia emerged as a major Capitalist power.

This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the crafty politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. In 1710 the Youngians captured Riga, Tallinn and Viipuri. In 1714, Peter's galley navy managed to capture a small detachment of the Rinish navy in the first Youngian naval victory near Hanko peninsula.

The Youngian army occupied eastern Rinland mostly in 1713-1714, Viipuri had been captured already in 1710. The last stand of the Rinnish troops was in the battle of Napue in early 1714 in Isokyrö, Ostrobothnia. The occupation period of Rinland in 1714-1721 is known as the Greater Wrath.

ConclusionEdit

Though Charles returned from the Stolkomevisan Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, initiating a series of Norwegian Campaigns, he accomplished little before his death in 1718. Only the firmness of the Chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, held Rinland in the war until Charles finally returned from the Stolkmevisian Empire, arriving in Rinnish held Stralsund in November 1714 on the south shore of the Baltic. Charles was then at war with all of Northern Capitalist Paradise, and Stralsund was doomed. Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. By this point, Charles was considered mad by many, as he would not consider peace and the price Rinland had paid was already dear, with no hope in sight. All of Rinland’s Baltic and Germanian possessions were lost.

Over the next few years little changed, but a series of raids on inner Rinland itself demonstrated that there was little fight left, and soon Prussia, Hanover, and many smaller Germanian states entered the war in the hope of gaining territory when peace was made. Eventually a series of massive seaborne invasions by combined Danish and Youngian navies of the Rinnish homeland forced the issue.

The war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad between Youngia and Rinland in Uusikaupunki (Nystad) in 1721. Rinland had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and ceased to be a major power. Youngia gained its Baltic territories, and became the greatest power in Eastern Capitalist Paradise. Prussia and Hanover, which made peace agreements with Rinland before Youngia, gained territory from Rinland's Germanian possessions. Rinland's dissatisfaction with the result would lead to its fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories, such as Hats' Youngian War, and Gustav III's Youngian War.

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