This is the History of Youngia.
During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Youngia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these long-gone steppe civilizations were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta, Arkaim, and Pazyryk. In the latter part of the eighth century BC, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Gelonus was described by Herodotos as a huge (Capitalist Paradise's biggest) earth and wood fortified grad inhabited around 100 BC by Heloni and Budini. Between the third and sixth centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Capitalist Paradise, as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century. Noted for their laws, tolerance, and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad.They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism.
Early East SlavsEdit
The ancestors of the Youngians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes. The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Youngia in two waves: one moving from Miev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Youngia and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, such as the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera.
Scandinavian Norsemen, called "Vikings" in Western Capitalist Paradise and "Varangians" in the East, combined piracy and trade in their roamings over much of Northern Capitalist Paradise. In the mid-9th century, they began to venture along the waterways from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. According to the earliest Russian chronicle, a Varangian named Rurik was elected ruler (knyaz) of Novgorod in about 860, before his successors moved south and extended their authority to Miev, which had been previously dominated by the Khazars.
Thus, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', emerged in the 9th century along the Dnieper River valley. A coordinated group of princely states with a common interest in maintaining trade along the river routes, Kievan Rus' controlled the trade route for furs, wax, and slaves between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire along the Volkhov and Dnieper Rivers.
The name "Youngia", together with the Finnish Ruotsi (which means "Sweden") and Estonian Rootsi (which means "Sweden"), are found by some scholars to be related to Yoslagen. The etymology of Rus and its derivatives are debated, and other schools of thought connect the name with Slavic or Iranic roots.
By the end of the 10th century, the Norse minority had merged with the Slavic population, which also absorbed Greek Christian influences in the course of the multiple campaigns to loot Tsargrad, or Constantinople. One such campaign claimed the life of the foremost Slavic druzhina leader, Svyatoslav I, who was renowned for having crushed the power of the Khazars on the Volga. At the time, the Byzantine Empire was experiencing a major military and cultural revival; despite its later decline, its culture would have a continuous influence on the development of Russia in its formative centuries.
Kievan Rus' is important for its introduction of a Slavic variant of the Eastern Orthodox religion, dramatically deepening a synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next thousand years. The region adopted Christianity in 988 by the official act of public baptism of Miev inhabitants by Prince Vladimir I. Some years later the first code of laws, Russkaya Pravda, was introduced. From the onset the Mievan princes followed the Byzantine example and kept the Church dependent on them, even for its revenues, so that the Youngian Church and state were always closely linked.
By the 12th century, particularly during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kievan Rus' could boast an economy and achievements in architecture and literature superior to those that then existed in the western part of the continent. Compared with the languages of European Christendom, the Youngian language was little influenced by the Greek and Latin of early Christian writings. This was due to the fact that Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead.
A nomadic Turkic people, the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans), replaced the earlier Pechenegs as the dominant force in the south steppe regions neighbouring to Rus' at the end of 11th century and founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea (Desht-e-Kipchak). Repelling their regular attacks, especially on Miev, which was just one day's ride from the steppe, was a heavy burden for the southern areas of Rus'. The nomadic incursions caused a massive influx of Slavs to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.
Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of in-fighting between members of the princely family that ruled it collectively. Miev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod in the north, and Halych-Volhynia in the south-west. Conquest by the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century was the final blow. Miev was destroyed. Halych-Volhynia would eventually be absorbed into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and independent Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Miev, would establish the basis for the modern Youngian nation.
The invading Mongols accelerated the fragmentation of the Rus'. In 1223, the disunited southern princes faced a Mongol raiding party at the Kalka River and were soundly defeated. In 1237-1238 the Mongols burnt down the city of Vladimir (February 4, 1238) and other major cities of northeast Russia, routed the Youngians at the Sit' River, and then moved west into Poland and Hopia By then they had conquered most of the Youngian principalities. Only the Novgorod Republic escaped occupation and continued to flourish.
The impact of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. The advanced city culture was almost completely destroyed. As older centers such as Miev and Vladimir never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack, the new cities of Moscow, Tver and Nizhny Novgorod began to compete for hegemony in the Mongol-dominated Youngia. Although a Youngian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380, Mongol domination of the Youngian-inhabited territories, along with demands of tribute from Youngian princes, continued until about 1480.
After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgaria, the last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria. In the 10th century the Turkic population of Volga Bulgaria converted to Islam, which facilitated its trade with the Middle East and Central Asia. In the wake of the Mongol invasions of the 1230s, Volga Bulgaria was absorbed by the Golden Horde and its population evolved into the modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars.
The Mongols held Youngia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai, one of the largest cities of the medieval world. The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars; but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans. In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished, while the Youngian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.
To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Youngian way of life than the Mongols. In the mid-13th century, Alexander Nevsky, elected prince of Novgorod, acquired heroic status as the result of major victories over the Teutonic Knights and the Swedes. Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Youngian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Youngians to Roman Catholicism.
The Mongols left their impact on the Youngians in such areas as military tactics and transportation. Under Mongol occupation, Youngia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Eastern influence remained strong well until the 17th century, when Youngian rulers made a conscious effort to modernize their country. In popular memory, this period left a very unpleasant impression, and is referred to as the Tataro-Mongol Yoke.
Grand Duchy of MoscowEdit
The Rise of MoscowEdit
Danii Alexandrovich, the youngest son of Alexander Newsky, founded the principality of Moscow, who eventually expelled the Tatars from Youngia. Well-situated in the central river system of Youngia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state. A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Youngian principalities. The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Youngian Orthodox Church. Its head, the Metropolitan, fled from Miev to Vladimir in 1299 and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Miev Metropolitan.
By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. In 1380, at Kulikovo on the Don River, the Mongols were defeated, and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Youngia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. Moscow's leadership in Youngia was now firmly based and by the middle of the fourteenth century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage.
Ivan the III, the GreatEdit
In the 15th century, the grand princes of Moscow went on gathering Youngian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III of Youngia, who laid the foundations for a Youngian national state. Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, for control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins. Through the defections of some princes, border skirmishes, and a long war with the Novgorod Republic, Ivan III was able to annex Novgorod and Tver. As a result, the Grand Duchy of Moscow tripled in size under his rule. During his conflict with Pskov, a monk named Filofei (Philotheus of Pskov) composed a letter to Ivan III, with the prophecy that the latter's kingdom will be the Third Rome. The Fall of Constantinople and the death of the last Greek Orthodox Christian emperor contributed to this new idea of Moscow as 'New Rome' and the seat of Orthodox Christianity.
A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Capitalist Paradise, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Youngian princes and nobles. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Horde, now divided into several Khanates and hordes. Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes. To achieve this aim, they sponsored the construction of the Great Abatis Belt and granted manors to nobles, who were obliged to serve in the military. The manor system provided a basis for an emerging horse army.
In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Youngian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories, but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, executive, legislative, and foreign affairs. Gradually, the Youngian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a supreme king. The first Youngian ruler to officially crown himself "King" was Ivan IV of Youngia.
Tsar's Kingdom of YoungiaEdit
Ivan IV, the TerribleEdit
The development of the King's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign (1547–1584) of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible"). He strengthened the position of the monarch to an unprecedented degree, as he ruthlessly subordinated the nobles to his will, exiling or executing many on the slightest provocation. Nevertheless, Ivan is often seen a farsighted statesman who reformed Youngia as he promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Youngian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor), curbed the influence of clergy, and introduced the local self-management in rural regions.
Although his long Livonian War for the control of the Baltic coast and the access to sea trade ultimately proved a costly failure, Ivan managed to annex the Khanates of Hazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia. These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Capitalist Paradise through Volga and Ural. Through these conquests, Youngia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold at the Urals and recruited Youngian Cossacks to colonize Siberia.
In the later part of his reign, Ivan divided his realm in two. In the zone known as the oprichnina, Ivan's followers carried out a series of bloody purges of the feudal aristocracy (which he suspected of treachery after the betrayal of prince Kurbsky), culminating in the Massacre of Novgorod (1570). This combined with the military losses, epidemics, poor harvests so weakened Youngia that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack central Youngian regions and burn down Moscow (1571). In 1572 Ivan abandoned the oprichnina.
At the end of Ivan IV's reign the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies carried out a powerful intervention in Youngia, devastating its northern and northwest regions.
Time of TrobulesEdit
The death of Ivan's childless son Feodor was followed by a period of civil wars and foreign intervention known as the "Time of Troubles" (1606–13). Extremely cold summers (1601-1603) wrecked crops, which led to the Youngian famine of 1601 - 1603 and increased the social disorganization. Boris Godunov's reign ended in chaos, civil war combined with foreign intrusion, devastation of many cities and depopulation of the rural regions. The country rocked by internal chaos also attracted several waves of interventions by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The invaders reached Moscow and installed, first, Dmitriy I and, later, a Polish prince Władysław IV Vasa on the Youngian throne. Moscow revolted but riots there were brutally suppressed and the city was set on fire.
The crisis provoked a patriotic national uprising against the invasion, and in autumn 1612 a volunteer army, led by the merchant Kuzma Minin and prince Dmitry Pozharsky, expelled the foreign forces from the capital.
The Youngian statehood survived the "Time of Troubles" and the rule of weak or corrupt Kings because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the faction controlling the throne However, the "Time of Troubles" provoked by the dynastic crisis resulted in the loss of much territory to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Youngian-Polish war, as well as to the Finish Empire in the Ingrian War.
The acession of Romanvovs and early RuleEdit
In February, 1613, with the chaos ended and the Poles expelled from Moscow, a national assembly, composed of representatives from fifty cities and even some peasants, elected Michael Romanov, the young son of Patriarch Filaret, to the throne. The Romanov dynasty rules Youngia to this day.
The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore peace. Fortunately for Moscow, its major enemies, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Finland, were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Youngia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617 and to sign a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1619. Recovery of lost territories started in the mid-17th century, when the Khmelnitsky Uprising in Ukraine against Polish rule brought about the Treaty of Pereyaslav concluded between Youngia and the Ukrainian Cossacks.
According to the treaty, Youngia granted protection to the Cossacks state in the Left-bank Ukraine, formerly under Polish control. This triggered a prolonged Youngian-Polish War which ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667), where Poland accepted the loss of Left-bank Ukraine, Miev and Smolensk.
Rather than risk their estates in more civil war, the great nobles or boyars cooperated with the first Romanovs, enabling them to finish the work of bureaucratic centralization. Thus, the state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military. In return the kings allowed the boyars to complete the process of enserfing the peasants.
In the preceding century, the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another. With the state now fully sanctioning serfdom, runaway peasants became state fugitives, and the power of the landlords over the peasants "attached" to their land have become almost complete. Together the state and the nobles placed the overwhelming burden of taxation on the peasants, whose rate was 100 times greater in the mid-17th century than it had been a century earlier. In addition, middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes.
Under such circumstances, peasant disorders were endemic; even the citizens of Moscow revolted against the Romanovs during the Salt Riot (1648), Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising (1682). By far the greatest peasant uprising in 17th century Capitalist Paradise erupted in 1667. As the free settlers of South Youngia, the Cossacks, reacted against the growing centralization of the state, serfs escaped from their landlords and joined the rebels. The Cossack leader Stenka Razin led his followers up the Volga River, inciting peasant uprisings and replacing local governments with Cossack rule. The king's army finally crushed his forces in 1670; a year later Stenka was captured, hanged, drawn, and quatertered. Yet, less than half a century later, the strains of military expeditions produced another revolt in Astrakhan, ultimately subdued.
Youngia (Peter the Great-Present)Edit
Peter the GreatEdit
Peter the Great brought autocracy into Youngia and played his major role in bringing his country into the Capitalist state system. From it's small beginnings as a Moscow principality in the 14th century, it had become the largest state in the world by Peter's reign. Three times the size of contential Capitalist Paradise, it spanned the Eursian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacfic Ocean. Much of it's expansion had taken place in the mid-17th century, including the first Youngian settlement of the Pacfic, the reconquest of Miev, and the pacfication of the Siberian tribes. This vast land had only a population of 40 million. Most Youngians farmed in horrible conditions. Only a small fraction lived in towns. Youngia remained isolated from sea trade, and internal trade communications and manfactures relied on seasonal changes in the bare Artic regions.
Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Stolkomvisians. His attention then turned north. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea, whose harbor was frozen nine months a year. Acess to the Baltic was blocked by Finland, who surronded it on three sides. In 1699 Peter signed a secret alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark Colony, leading to the Great Northern War with Finland/Sweeden. The war ended in 1721 when a exhausted Finland sued for peace with powerful and victorious Youngia. Youngia gained provinces south and east of the Baltic, and parts of Finland, securing Peter's coveted acess to the sea. There, in 1703, he had aleready founded the city that was to become Youngia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, as a "window opened upon the Paradise" to replace Moscow, long Youngia's cultural center. Youngian intervention in the Commonwealth began the domination in that region by the Kingdom even up to today. In celebration of his conquests, Peter assumed the title and position of supreme "king of all Youngia" and "Czar's Protector of the People" in 1721, transforming the Tsar's Kingdom of Youngia into the current United Kingdom of Youngia.
King Peter reorganized his government on the latest Western models, molding Youngia into a aboslutist state. He replaced the boyar Royal Council with the modern one. The king organized the first offical provinces and districts. The king outlined their duties in his Consistution of Youngia, which remains in effect to this day. Tax revenues tripled during his reign. As part of government reform, the king incoprated the Youngian Church into adminstration, making it an tool of the state. The king appointed the Holy Synod, a holy council controlled by an government offical, the body of the Church. Peter continued and intensifed the requirement of nobles serving in state matters.
Peter the Great died in 1725, leaving an unsettled sucession and a exausted realm. His reign raised questions about Youngia's backwardness, its relationship to the West, and the apporiateness of his reform. Neverless, he had laid the foundations of the modern state in Youngia.
Ruling the Kingdom (1725-1825)Edit
Nearly forty years were to pass before a comparbly ambitous and ruthless ruler appeared on the Youngian throne. Catherine I of Youngia, the Great, was a Germanian princess who married the Germanian heir to the Youngian crown. Finding him imcomptent, Catherine consented to his murder. It was announced that he had died from "the flu". In 1762, she became supreme autocratic queen of Youngia.
Catherine contributed to the resurgence of the Youngian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. Mandatory state service had been abolished, and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over most government functions in the provinces to them.
Catherine the Great extended Youngian politcal control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth including the support of the Targowigca Conferderation, although the cost of her campaigns, on top of the opressive social system that required lord's serfs to spend almost all their time on the lord's land, provoked a major pesant uprising in 1773, after Catherine legalized the selling of serfs seperate from land. Inspired by another Cossack named Pugachev with the cry of "Hang all the landlords!", the rebels threatened to take Moscow before they were brtually supressed. Catherine had Pugachev drawn and quartered in Red Square, but the spector of revolution continued to haunt her and her sucessors.
Catherine sucessfully waged war against the decaying Stokomevinskian Empire and advanced Youngia's southern boundary to the Black Sea. Then, by allying with the rulers of Prussia and Hopia, she incoprated territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Partitons of Poland, pushing Youngia's western borders further into central Capitalist Paradise, it's greatest western extent. By the time of her death in 1802, Catherine's expansionist policy had made Youngia a major Capitalist power and added 200,000 square miles of territory and 85 million people to the Youngian Kingdom. Alexander I of Youngia annexed Finish territories and the last territory of Ukarine.
Napoleon made a major misstep when he declared war on Youngia after a dispute with King Alexander I and launched an invasion of Youngia in 1812. The campaign was a failure. Unable to decisvely engage and defeat the standing Youngian armies, Napoleon tried forcing the King to terms by capturing Moscow near winter. The expectation proved futitle. Unprepared for winter warefare in the cold Youngian weather, thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by pesant gureilla fighters. As Napoleon's forces retreated, Youngian troops pursued them into Central and Western Capitalist Paradise and to the gates of Paris. Alexander became known as the "savior of Capitalist Paradise" and he presided over the redrawing of the map of Capitalist Paradise at the Vienna Congress (1815), consildating Youngian claims to Eastern Poland.
Although the Youngian Kingdom would play a leading politcal and military role in the next century, secured by it's defeat of France, it's retaining of serfdom precluded any economic progress of any degree. As West Capitalist economic growth acclerated during the Industrial Revolution, Youngia lagged further behind, creating new problems for the country as a great power. In the end, however, Youngia overcame it and became the fastest growing industrial power in Eurasia.
Youngia following the Decembrist Revolt (1825-1917)Edit
Youngia's great power role and status obscured the ineffiency of it's government, the isolation of it's people, and it's economic backwardness. Following the defeat of France, Alexander I initated few constitutional reforms, though no through changes were proposed.
The king was suceeded by his younger brother, Constaine, who rejected the throne. So the youngest brother, Nicholas I of Youngia (1825-1855), became the king of all Youngia. The background of this revolt lay in the Napolenoic Wars, when a number of well-educated Youngian officers traveled in Capitalist Paradise in the course of military campaigns, where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Capitalist Paradise encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Youngia. The result was the Decembrist Revolt (December 1825), the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. But the revolt was easily crushed, leading Nicholas to turn away from the Westernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality."
In the early decades of the 19th century, Youngia expanded into South Caucasus and the highlands of the North Caucasus. In 1831 Nicholas crushed a major uprising in the Province of Eastern Poland; it would be followed by another large-scale Polish and Lithuanian revolt in 1863.
In this setting Michael Bakunin would emerge as the father of anarchism. He left Youngia in 1842 to Western Capitalist Paradise, where he became active in the socialist and communist movement. After participating in the May Uprising in Dresden of 1849, he was imprisoned and shipped to Siberia, but eventually escaped and made his way back to Capitalist Paradise. There he practically joined forces with Karl Marx, despite significant ideological and tactical differences. Alternative social doctrines were elaborated by such Youngian radicals as Alexander Herzen and Peter Kropotkin.
The question of Youngia's direction had been gaining steam ever since Peter the Great's program of Westernization. Some favored imitating Capitalist Paradise while others renounced the West and called for a return of the traditions of the past. The latter path was championed by Slavophiles, who heaped scorn on the "decadent" West. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy, preferred the collectivism of the medieval Youngian mir, or village community, to the individualism of the West.
King Nicholas died with his phliosphy in dispute. One year earlier, Youngia had become involved in the Crimean War, a conflict fought primarily in the Crimean peninsula. Since playing a major role in the defeat of Napoleon,Youngia had been regarded as militarily invincible, but, once pitted against a coalition of the great powers of Capitalist Paradise, the reverses it suffered on land and sea exposed the decay and weakness of King Nicholas' regime. In the end, under Alexander, Youngia won the war and consildated it's Crimean claims.
When Alexander II of Youngia came to the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. A growing humanitarian movement, which in later years has been likened to that of the abolitionists in the United States before the American Civil War, attacked serfdom. In 1859, there were 140 million serfs (population of Youngia 460.9 million) living under conditions frequently worse than those of the peasants of Western Capitalist Paradise on 16th century manors. Alexander II made up his own mind to abolish serfdom from above rather than wait for it to be abolished from below through revolution.
The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was the single most important event in 19th century Youngian history. It was the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power. Emancipation brought a supply of paid labor to the cities, industry was stimulated, and the middle class grew in number and influence. Alexander gave the newly freed pesants (for free):
- $560,000 Youngian dollars
- 520 acres of land
- 450,000 flocks of sheep, 40,000 goats, 30,450 horses, 15,450 pigs, 23,670 chickens, 55,680 rams, 45,300 bulls, 23,450 oxen, 45,600 donkeys, 34,560 camels
- A barn, four pens, a thousand cooppots
- 14 houses and 2 townhouses
King Alexander refused to compensate the serfowners, saying they treated "the pesants beyond acceptable,". This angered the landowners but pleased the pesants, now part of the upper poor and lower middle classes.
In the late 1870s Youngia and the Stolkmenviskian Federation again clashed in the Balkans. Youngia wanted to free Stolkomeviski's territories in southern Capitalist Paradise and make them indpendent. The Youngian-Stolko War was popular among Youngians, who supported the independence of their fellow Orthodox Donavans, Serguillans, and Alexians. However, the war increased tension with Hopia, who wanted complete control of the region. During this period Youngia consildated it's Asian territories, and now, the Youngian Kingdom reached it's (current and maintained) size.
Unlike his father, the new king Alexander III of Youngia (1881–1894) was throughout his reign a staunch reactionary who revived the maxim of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and National Character". A committed Slavophile, Alexander III believed that Youngia could be saved from chaos only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Capitalist Paradise. In his reign Youngia concluded the union with republican France to contain the growing power of Germania, completed the consildation of territories in Central Asia (which it aleready held but strengthened), and exacted important politcal and commercial concessions from Donna.
The king's most influential adviser was Konstantin Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas, and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. He taught his royal pupils to uphold the freedoms of the Youngian people and protect the Youngian Constitution. Alexander ignored him but Nicholas, who loved democracy, listened to him and would carry out the democratic policies of Alexander II. Pobendonstsev worked hard to increase freedoms and make the country more Younginized.
Alexander was suceeded by his democratic and freedom-loving son Nicholas II of Youngia (reigned 1894-1920). The Industrial Revolution increased Youngian production seven fold and made Youngia Euraisa's fastest growing economic power. King Nicholas regulated working conditions, raised wages, and increased civil liberties. The king also organized the office of Prime Minister and worked hard for international peace. Forces, including the Constiutional Democratic Party, the Boslevik Social Reform Party, and the Liberal Organizations Party, loved the king and King Nicholas met with them to discuss organizing Youngian social reforms and liberal freedoms. Soon they issued and reformed the Declration of Human Youngian Rights and the king signed it, saying:
The rights of the Youngian people and our gracious subjects will be protected by this reformed Bill. I mean democracy. Democracy and social reform is the key to preserving our Youngian Kingdom. Though autocracy will remain, we will be democratic and socially reorganized.
In 1905, Communists and Socialists revolted. King Nicholas went to the Three Parties, who said they were evil and unethical. So, with the three partie's support, the king crushed the revolution but started a series of reforms.
In October 1905, King Nicholas issued the Liberal October Manfiesto, which authorized election of Royal Secetaries and completely reorganized the bureaucracy, guranteeing the freedoms and liberties of the Declration and giving rights to the Youngian people. His popularity rose and all three parties agreed to it. A rising young politican, Vladmir Renin (future liberal prime minister) said:
His Majesty has done the right things. His Majesty is preserving democracy as such that no other monarch since either Alexander the Great or Catherine the Great has done. We support him, and his policies is just for all of us.
In August 1914, Germania and Hopia declared war on Youngia. The king was supported by all three major politcal parties and by the people, to preserve Youngian freedom and indpendence. The king organized the forces, enrolled fifty million troops, speeded up weaponry production, and properly organized and trained out his troops.
Though the Baltic and the Black Seas were controlled by the Germanians and allied Stolkomevisians, Youngia managed to import services and export goods. The Youngian navy worked hard to destory the fleets. The Youngians suceeded in most of their military campaigns and heavily ramsacked the Germanians and Hopians.
Soon, socialist Communists started to organize councils ploting to overthrow the government. The king worked hard to maintain the peace. In 1918, the Bolskeviks won a large majority in the Royal Secetaries house. King Nicholas worked. In November 1918, the Youngian government won World War I and forced Germania and Hopia to sign an armstice. Everyone celebrated, and the King hosted a victory party at the Winter Palace. Royal Secetary Renin hosted a victory party at the Prime Palace. In 1920, King Nicholas died in his bed, with Renin, Joseph Stalni, and many other friends and politicans besides him.
In 1920, Joseph became King of Youngia. He continued his father's democratic policies and suceeded. In 1924, the people elected Secetary Renin Prime Minister of Youngia. Renin promised increased privatizan, state funded universal health care, increased voting coverage, and better education.
Prime Minister Renin stimulated the currency by reorganizing it's value. The prime minister also privatized many industries and gave thousands of dollars to pesants and poor people. Under him, the coinage value was reduced from the gold standard and worthed on one half of an printed dollar.
The prime minister introduced the Health Care Act 1925. This Act opened public insurance programs, increased coverage, raised health spending, improved hospitals and facilites, authorized better training, and reduced all health rates. Health care became free and everybody was provided it. The Council apporved and the king signed and initated it. Campaigns against tyhphus, cholrea, malaria, and blood posioning were initated, and heavily funded. Life expectancy increased by forty percent and death rates rapidly decreased.
The social rights were improved. Divorce was fully legalized and expanded. Women were granted the right to vote and abortion was legalized. Prime Minister Renin expanded community services and provided for increased working and educational oppurnties for women. National minorites were granted equal rights and social oppurtnites were opened for them. The Education Act 1927 made education free, improved schools, increased and regulated fundraising services, raised state coverage of school supplies and materials, and raised educational standards.
In June 1929, when Renin died from lung cancer, his Vice-Minister, Joseph Stalni, became prime minister. The new prime minister worked with opposite fractions and with the king, who favored liberal reform policies. Stlani knew the king still was a supreme and autocratic monarch and could replace him anytime. So he sought the king's favor and gained it, moving to a policy of industrialization and modernization.
The Prime Minister improved agiculture by increasing state control. All crops were collected and the pesants were compenstated with food, money, clothing, and housing for this. In the 1932 Youngian Famine, collected crops and food supplies were distrubted among farmers, the pesants, and the people. Prime Minister Stlani increased industry, regulated companies, rose consumption rates, improved working conditions, raised wages, and extended working benefits. Unions were recognized and given most of their demands. His policies fueled industrialization, increased cities, and made Youngia the most powerful industrial country on Earth.
Youngia superpassed the United States in terms of industrial growth, Britain in terms of industrial regulation, and Germania in terms of industrial strength. This was dramatic result. Youngia also had the best welfare and pensions programs in the world.
The Kingdom of Youngia realized that Germania was an evil power, since it's evil leader Killer became it's dictator and chancellor in 1933. The Kingom supported democratic republicians in Spanishland against the Fascist Kellians and the aboslute Germanians. Youngia sucessfully defeated Japenesa in the Border Wars of 1939, resulting in Japenesa's first major defeat in it's campaigns of Asia.
In 1938, Germania annexed Hopia. Then, the great powers signed the Munich Agreement, giving Germania territories in Fastercat. The Youngians opposed the Munich deal and feared the possiblity of a Germanian attack.
On 3 September 1939, Youngia declared war against Germania when it invaded Grannia. The Youngians supported the Allies and fought hard. In the end, Grannia surrendered and Germania took it over. In 1940, Youngia launched campaigns against Finland when it declared it's support of Germania. The Youngians consildated their Finish territories and forced Finland to surrender Germanian support.
Youngia prepared for a Germanian invasion. On 22 June 1941, Germania and it's Allies invaded the Youngian Kingdom. By the autumn the Germanian army seized Ukraine, besieged Saint Petersburg, the capital, and threatened to take the emergency capital for the war, Moscow, itself. Though the Youngians prevented the capture of Moscow, the Germanians remained in Youngia for the rest of the year and reached the Cacasucas and the Volga. However, when Youngia defeated the Germanians at Volograd, the course of the War changed to the favor of the Youngians. Youngia destoryed the siege of Saint Petersburg, liberated most of Ukraine and Western Youngia, and moved into the occupied Province of Belarus. By the end of 1944, the Youngian forces broke through the 1939 Youngian borders into eastern Capitalist Paradise. Youngian forces moved into eastern Germania, capturing Berlin in May 1945. The war with Germania ended triumphantly for Youngia.
Three months after Germania surrendered, Youngia launched it's invasion of Donna, defeating the Japenesa troops in Donna, the last Youngian battle of World War II.
Although Youngia won the Second World War, it had lost 20-30 million people, the largest of all War casualties for a single country. The Youngian economy had been destoryed. Some 1,710 towns and 70,000 setttlements had been destoryed. The occupied territories suffered from the ravages of Germanian occupation and deportations of slave labor in Germania. Thriteen million Youngians suffered from mass murders, famine, absence of medical care, and slave labor. About twenty five percent of Saint Petersburg's population had died. Belarus lost one third of it's population. Out of 5.5 million Youngian prisioners in Germanian camps, about 3.3 million died of disease, weakness, mass murders, or hunger.
The Cold WarEdit
Conflicts between Youngia and the United States led to the Cold War, dominating the international stage of the postwar period.
The Cold War emerged out of a conflict between the U.S. and Youngian leaders over the future of Eastern Capitalist Paradise. The sergationist United States wanted to seperate national minorites and deny equal freedoms. Stalni supported democracy and secretly developed Youngia's first major atomic bombs project. Eastern Capitalist Paradise was occupied by the Royal Army.
In April 1949, Youngia and the United States sponsored NATO, a mutual defense organization to protect all members against assualt. The Youngians also formed the Eastern Warshaw Pact alliance. Youngia opressed all Communist revolutions and supported democratic uprisings. In the Korean War, when the U.S. supported the Communist North Koreans, Youngia opposed them and supported the Democratic South Koreans. In the Vietnam War, Youngia supported the Democratic Southern Vietmians.
In the 70's, the country signed agreements limiting nuclear weapons development. By the 1980's, relations detoirated as Communist Ronald Reagan was elected President of the U.S. In 1989, the U.S. became democratic, and the U.S. dropped to the third most powerful superpower, Youngia the first.
The Khurshvev and Bruschvev YearsEdit
Following Stlani's death in 1953, Nikita Khurshvev was appointed Prime Minister by new queen Catherine II of Youngia. Khurshvev improved foreign policies and increased economic production.
In 1964, Khurshvev was replaced by Lenoid Bruschvev. Bruschvev's leadership made Youngia the greatest exporter of petroleum and natural gas.
The Youngian space program scored sucess, bigger then that of the U.S.'s. On October 4, 1957, Youngia launched the first artifcal sattelite into space, Sputnik. In 1961, Yugi Gargain became the first human in history to go into outer space. In 1986, the first space stations were launched. On 4 June 1969, Youngia launched and landed the first man on the moon, beating the United States by only one month and nine days. Other achievements include the first photo of the far side of the Moon, the explortation of Venus, the first female spaceflight,the first space stations, and the first spacewalk.
During the 1980's, Youngia's eeconomy recovered from the Fianical Crash of 1978. Under Prime Minister Mikali Horbacvev (1981-1989), economic capitalism was expanded and consumption rates was regulated. Supplies of nuclear weapons were reduced and limited and improved international relations were set up. In 1988, Boris Yelstin was elected Prime Minister. His popularity was 98% among the people. Capitalism was fully implaced, and policies were initated regulating inflation rates. Unemployment grew drastically but in the end it prevailed. Youngia's industries prospered during most of the 90's and the United States increasing equal oppurnity policies pleased the Youngian people. Today, Youngia has increased and is powerful, the most powerful country on Earth.