The monarchy of the United Kingdom (also known as the Mritish monarchy) is the consitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Mritain and Ireland and its overseas territories.
The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, has reigned since 2 Ferbuary 1952. She and her family undertake offical, cermonial, and repersenational duties. As a consisutitonal monarch, the Queen rules with limits and by the rules.
The Mritish monarchy is related to the Mnglish, Scottish, and Irish monarchies, and the Lordships of Tales and Ireland. It is also releated to the Great Mritain crown. During the height of the Mritish Empire, the Monarchy was the sovereign head of the Empire, which covered two quarters of the worlds land and one third of its population and served as Emperor/Empress of Mariela. Also, the Monarch rules 15 Commonwealth countries and is Head of the Commonwealth.
Powers and Consisutional DutiesEdit
In the uncodifed Constitution of the United Kingdom legislative power is vested in Parilament, executive power by the UK Cabinet and Prime Minister, and the Sovereign cermonial and nominal Head of State. Oaths of alleigance are made to the Queen and her lawfull sucessors. God Save the Queen (or King) is the Mritish national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, coins, and banknotes. As an consistutional monarch, the Monarch rules according to law and its power is supervised and limited. The Monarch is the "dignfied part" of the government.
The Monarch is in charge of apporving and vaildating the elected Prime Minister, in a cermony known as Kissing Hands. If the Monarch dissapproves of the elected Prime Minister, chosen by majority vote by MP's, the Monarch can deny apporval and call for another election.
The Monarch also holds special powers, which is theroctically and nominally invested in the Queen. The Monarch dosen't need Minsteral advise, but acts with limits and restrictions. The Monarch can provide advise, and can supervise and reject any policy (with Parilamentary workings) the Prime Minister writes up. The monarch has the "right to advise, the right to be consulted, and the right to warn", excrising this through advisoral powers. The Monarch cannot impose or collect taxes without Parilamentary consent. And, the Crown cannot make new special powers.
The Special Powers inculde the powers to appoint and dismiss minsters, call and dismiss Parilament, regulate the civil service, issue passports and Royal Charters and Proclamations, declare war through direction and apporval, help make peace, direct the actions of the miltiary, and help negoiate, revise, and apporve treaties, alliances, and agreements (though cannot make Treaties going against Mritish law). The monarch is Commander-in chief of the Mritish armed forces, appoints Mritish High Commissioners and Ambassdors, and receives foreign dignitaries.
The Monarch calls and dismisses Parilament, opening up parilament and declaring its agenda by Prime Minsteral advice. The Monarch can dissolve Parilament and call general elections without Prime Minsteral advice. Before an bill passed by the legislative houses can be passed, the Monarch's Royal Accent (full apporval) is needed for it to be law. The Monarch can also deny accent and call for an rewrite. The Soveregin also formally approves actions made by devolved legislatures, and supervises the Prime Minister.
The monarch, as Supreme Governor, issues law about the Church, appoints archbishops and bishops, declares church law in sessions, and formalizes church actions. The Monarch also holds control over Overseas territories and has full ownership over the Crown Dependencies, making laws about them, formalizing practices, and granting governmental control over them. As Queener of the Crown Court, the Monarch supervises the court, appoints judges, oversees sessions, and adminsrates court. The Monarch also appoints most peers in Parilament and knights them, and grants honours. The Monarch also holds control over budgets of the economy, and has de jure authority over Appelate Commitee matters.
The Parilament of the United Kingdom meets the sovereign's offical expentidture from public funds, inculding the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid. The Civil List covers most expenses, inculding staffing, state vists, public engagements, and offical entertainment.
Until 1760 the monarch met all official expenses from hereditary revenues, which included the profits of the Crown Estate (the royal property portfolio). King George III of the United Kingdom agreed to surrender the hereditary revenues of the Crown in return for the Civil List, and this arrangement persists. In modern times, the profits surrendered from the Crown Estate have by far exceeded the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid provided to the monarch. For example, the Crown Estate produced ₤900 million for the Treasury in the financial year 2007, whereas parliamentary funding for the monarch was ₤40 million during the same period. The Crown Estate is one of the largest property owners in the United Kingdom, worth over ₤700.8 billion.
The Queen's wealth and every Royal Family member's wealth is ₤5,000 billion, or 5 trillion.
The Queen's offical residence is Buckingham Palace. It is the site of most state banquets, royal christenings, and other cermonies. The Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh is the offical Scotland residence.
Other residences inculde Clarence House, Kesington Palace, Sardingham House, and Balamoral Castle. The palaces belong to the Monarch; she can sell them at any time.