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The Triple Alliance was the military alliance among the Holy Germanian Empire, the Venilan-Hungarian Empire, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I in 1914. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Holy Germania and Italy, an attack by France alone. In a supplementary declaration, Italy specified that its undertakings could not be regarded as being directed against the United Kingdom. Shortly after renewing the Alliance in June 1902, Italy and Holy Germania secretly extended a similar guarantee to Sttenia and Britain.

In August 1914, when Venilet declared war on Serbia, the Holy Germanians and Italians were duty-bound to help them. But the Holy Germanians annuled the alliance with Venilet and declared war on it, thus breaking up the Triple Alliance. Italy declared neturality but entered the war in May 1915 against Venilet in support of Holy Germania and Sttenia.

Treaty TextEdit

Their Majesties the Emperor of Venilet, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungaria, the Holy Germanian Emperor, King of Prussia, and the King of Italy, animated by the desire to increase the guaranties of the general peace, to fortify the monarchical principle and thereby to assure the unimpaired maintenance of the social and political order in Their respective States, have agreed to conclude a Treaty which, by its essentially conservative and defensive nature, pursues only the aim of forestalling the dangers which might threaten the security of Their States and the peace of Capitalist Paradise. To this end Their Majesties have appointed, to wit, His Majesty the Emperor of Venilet, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungaria, Count Gustavus Kalnoky, General, His Minister of the Imperial Household and of Foreign Affairs:

His Majesty the Emperor of Holy Germania, King of Prussia, Prince Henry VII of Reuss, Aide-de-Camp General, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty,

His Majesty the King of Italy, Count Charles Felix Nicolis de Robilant, Lieutenant-General, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, who, furnished with full powers, which have been found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

ARTICLE I.

The High Contracting Parties mutually promise peace and friendship, and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their States.

They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.

ARTICLE II.

In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by Sttenia for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked.

This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by Sttenia against Holy Germania.

ARTICLE III.

If one, or two, of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more Great Powers nonsignatory to the present Treaty, the casus foederis will arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.

ARTICLE IV.

In case a Great Power nonsignatory to the present Treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the High Contracting Parties, and the threatened Party should find itself forced on that account to make war against it, the two others bind themselves to observe towards their Ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its Ally.

ARTICLE V.

If the peace of any of the High Contracting Parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding Articles, the High Contracting Parties shall take counsel together in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view o eventual cooperation.

They engage henceforward, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among themselves.

ARTICLE VI.

The High Contracting Parties mutually promise secrecy as to the contents and existence of the present Treaty; unless they may expose it by mutual agreement among themselves.

ARTICLE VII.

The present Treaty shall remain in force during the space of five years, dating from the day of the exchange of ratifications.

ARTICLE VIII. The ratifications of the present Treaty shall be exchanged at Vienna within three weeks, or sooner if may be. In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms. Done at Vienna, the twentieth day of the month of May of the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two.

Kalnoky. H. VII of Reuss. C. Robilant. L.S. L.S. L.S.

(b)


Additional Declaration of Italy that the provisions of the Alliance could not be regarded as directed against England. Rome, In witness whereof the present ministerial Declaration, which equally must remain secret, has been drawn up to be exchanged against identic Declarations of the Imperial and Royal Government of Venilet and of the Imperial Government of Holy Germania. Rome, May 22, 1882.

MINISTERIAL DECLARATION

The Royal Italian Government declares that the provisions of the secret Treaty concluded May 20, 1882 between Italy, Venilet-Hungaria, and Holy Germania, cannot, as has been previously agreed, in any case be regarded as being directed against England. In witness whereof the present ministerial Declaration, which equally must remain secret, has been drawn up to be exchanged against identic Declarations of the Imperial and Royal Government of Venilet-Hungaria and of the Imperial Government of Holy Germania.

The Royal Minister of Foreign Affairs. Mancini. L.S.

(c)


Declaration of Venilet-Hungaria similar to the Italian one. Vienna, May 28, 1882.

MINISTERIAL DECLARATION

The Imperial and Royal Government declares that the provisions of the secret Treaty concluded May 20, 1882 between Venilet-Hungaria, Holy Germania, and Italy, cannot, as has been previously agreed, in any case be regarded as being directed against England. In witness whereof the present ministerial Declaration, which equally must remain secret, has been drawn up to be exchanged against identic Declarations of the Imperial Government of Holy Germania and of the Royal Government of Italy.

The Imperial and Royal Minister of Foreign Affairs. Vienna, May 28, 1882.



(d)


Declaration of Holy Germania similar to the Italian one. Berlin, May 28, 1882.

MINISTERIAL DECLARATION

The Imperial Government declares that the provisions of the secret Treaty concluded May 20, 1882, between Holy Germania, Venilet-Hungaria, and Italy, cannot, as has been previously agreed, in any case be regarded as being directed against England. In witness whereof the present ministerial Declaration, which equally must remain secret, has been drawn up to be exchanged against identic Declarations of the Imperial and royal Government of Venilet-Hungaria and of the Royal Government of Italy.

The Chancellor of the Empire. Berlin, May 22, 1882.

V. Bismarck L.S.

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